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Osteoporosis develops when bone density decreases. The body reabsorbs more bone tissue and produces less to replace it. Osteoporosis, or thinning bones, can result in painful fractures. Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle. Osteoporosis literally leads to the abnormally porous bone that is compressible, like a sponge. 

Risk factors

  • Sex hormone
  • Age: Risk increases after the mid-30s and especially after menopause.
  • Thyroid hormone 
  • Osteoporosis has also been associated with overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.
  •  Lack of calcium
  • Gastrointestinal disorders.
  • Kidney or liver disease
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sedentary lifestyle. 
  • Excessive alcohol consumption. Regular consumption of more than two alcoholic drinks a day increases your risk of osteoporosis.
  • Tobacco use

Sign and symptoms

Osteoporosis can be present without any symptoms for decades because     osteoporosis doesn’t cause symptoms until bone breaks.

  • Severe “band-like” pain that radiates from the back to the sides of the body


  • Exercising regularly
  • Consuming a balanced diet with adequate calcium and vitamin D
  • Protein is one of the building blocks of bone.

Medications that stop bone loss and increase bone strength

  • Zoledronate
  • Raloxifene 
  • Bisphosphonates: These are antiresorptive drugs that slow bone loss and reduce a person’s fracture risk.
  • Monoclonal antibodies (denosumab, romosozumab): These are immune therapies that some people with osteoporosis take after menopause.