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Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue that lines the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterus, usually in the pelvic area. This misplaced tissue can grow on organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and bowel, and even spread to other areas in rare cases.

During a normal menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens, breaks down and bleeds, and is then expelled from the body. However, with endometriosis, this tissue has no way to leave the body and becomes trapped, leading to inflammation, pain, and scarring.

The most common symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain, which may be severe and often worsens during periods. Other symptoms include painful bowel movements, painful intercourse, heavy menstrual bleeding, fatigue, and infertility.

While the exact cause of endometriosis is unknown, it is believed to be linked to hormonal imbalances, genetics, and immune system disorders. Treatment options may include pain medication, hormone therapy, or surgery to remove the endometrial tissue. In some cases, fertility treatments may also be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve fertility outcomes.