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Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a diagnostic procedure used to evaluate the condition of a woman's uterus and fallopian tubes. It is often recommended for women who are experiencing infertility, abnormal bleeding, or recurrent miscarriages.

During an HSG, a radiologist or gynecologist injects a small amount of X-ray contrast material into the uterus through the cervix. The contrast material fills the uterine cavity and then spills into the fallopian tubes, allowing the radiologist to visualize the shape and condition of both the uterus and the tubes.

The procedure typically takes around 30 minutes to complete and may cause some discomfort or cramping. After the procedure, the radiologist will review the X-ray images to check for any abnormalities, such as blockages or other issues that may be causing infertility or other symptoms.

HSG is a safe and effective diagnostic tool, with few risks or complications. However, some women may experience mild cramping or discomfort during the procedure. In rare cases, allergic reactions to the contrast material may occur.

In addition to its use as a diagnostic tool, HSG can also be used as a treatment for certain fertility issues. For example, if a blockage is found in one or both fallopian tubes, a small catheter can be inserted through the cervix to open the blockage and improve the chances of pregnancy.

HSG is often used in conjunction with other fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). By evaluating the condition of the uterus and fallopian tubes, HSG can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for individual patients.