Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) is a relatively recent testing for identification of genetic aberration in embryo generated through IVF prior to implantation. Thus, PGT facilitate or ensure the birth of health babies but negative selection of the affect embryos at the preimplantation stage. After testing only the normal embryo are transferred back.
PGT provide a an alternate to the current post- conception prenatal diagnostic procedure for the diagnosis, the parent can make an informed decision in consultation with the physician and genetic counselors, on the option of continuation of the pregnancy and birth of the baby or medical termination of the fetus in case of identification of a genetic aberration in the offspring. As against that, PGT help to eliminate the dilemma of medical treatment of pregnancy that may follow prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorder.
There is wide variety of disorder for which PGT is performed. The most common group for which PGD is done include testing in couple with high risk of transmitting inherited monogenic disorder including autosomal recessive disorder( like cystic fibrosis, beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia ) autosomal dominatingdisorder ( like myotonic dystrophy and Huntington’s diseases or X – linked disorder ( like fragile X- syndrome, hemophilia A, and Duchene muscular dystrophy) or a structural chromosomal aberration ( like balanced reciprocal, translocation, inversion etc. ).
Sex selection of embryos is also done using preimplantation genetic is done via PGT( preimplantation genetic testing) which involves taking a few cells from embryo with the help of ICSI machine as it grow in incubators in the IVF lab. And identify the sex via genetic analysis
According to act (88) in 1994 which limits the use of prenatal diagnosis to a list of selected congenital conditions and prohibit using these techniques for sex determination of the embryos. This is a punishable act and prohibiting by government of India. The PNDT Act prohibits the use of all technologies for the purpose of sex determination.