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Amenorrhea

                                    

Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding.Amenorrhea is a normal feature in prepubertal, pregnant, and postmenopausal females. A dysfunction in any of these parts can prevent a person from getting a period:

  • Hypothalamus: This controls the pituitary gland.
  • Pituitary gland: Called “the master gland,” which produces the hormones that instruct the ovaries to ovulate.
  • Ovaries
  • Uterus

 Types

  1. Primary Amenorrhea: Is when you haven’t gotten a first period by age 15 or within five years of the first signs of puberty.

Causes

  • Turner syndrome:
    • . The ovaries are replaced by scar tissue and estrogen production is minimal, resulting in amenorrhea. Estrogen-induced maturation of the external female genitalia and sex characteristics also fails to occur in.
  • Gonadal dysgenesis: premature failure of the ovaries.

2) Secondary Amenorrhea: Is when you’ve been getting regular periods, but you stop getting your period for at least three months, or you stop your menses for six months.  

  • Causes
    • Stress
    • Poor nutrition.
    • Weight changes — extreme weight loss or obesity.
    • Exercising associated with low weight.
    • Elevated levels of the hormone prolactin 
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Asherman's syndrome

Diagnosis

Tests to assess the levels of the following hormones:

  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Ultrasound
  • A thyroid function test
  • Pregnancy test

Treatment

  • Stress management techniques.
  • Changing exercise levels.
  • Hormonal treatment
  • Surgery
  • Estrogen therapy 
  • Gonadotropins medication
  • Dopamine agonist medications can reduce elevated prolactin levels

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