A hydrosalpinx is a condition that occurs when the fallopian tube is blocked and fills with serous or clear fluid near the ovary (distal to the uterus). The blocked tube may become substantially distended giving the tube a characteristic sausage-like or retort-like shape. The condition is often bilateral and the affected tubes may reach several centimeters in diameter. The blocked tubes cause infertility. A fallopian tube filled with blood is a hematosalpinx, and with pus a pyosalpinx.
Symptoms of hydrosalpinx include:
However, it is possible to have hydrosalpinx and not experience any symptoms.
Because hydrosalpinx impacts infertility, many women only discover they have the condition when trying to get pregnant.
Blocked tubes are usually diagnosed during a fertility workup. A hysterosalpingogram, or HSG, a special kind of x-ray can show tubal blockages.
To determine if the blockage is a hydrosalpinx, a sonohysterosalpingography may be needed. This procedure involves passing saline fluid and sterile air through the cervix and into the uterus. Then, transvaginal ultrasound is used to visualize the reproductive organs.
Ultrasound can also be used to diagnose hydrosalpinx, but it’s not always possible to visualize the fluid-filled tube this way. One study found that only 34% of hydrosalpinx were visible via ultrasound.
Laparoscopy may be used to diagnose hydrosalpinx. Diagnostic laparoscopy can also determine if additional factors, like endometriosis, are causing fertility problems.
Surgical cure can be performed through two operative procedures. These are :
Salpingostomy – It involves a surgical incision in the fallopian tube. This process is performed to remove an ectopic pregnancy or to repair a damaged fallopian tube.
Salpingectomy – It is a prophylactic surgery that includes complete removal of tube. However, this is not a complete curative process. It involves chances of shutdown of the incision and may lead to a recurrence of Hydrosalpinx. The process is more effectual in the nascent stages of Hydrosalpinx and when the obstruction is small. This operative method has shown significant results during pregnancy and in controlling birth rates. A complete surgical removal of the fallopian tube involves some risks and should best be performed when the patient is trying to become pregnant through in-vitro fertilization. It is important for the patient to undergo proper counseling before he or she gives consent for this Hydrosalpinx surgery.
It involves Pelvic Physical Therapy that helps in normal removal of the obstructions. This process involves the massaging of fallopian tubes to open the blockage. The success rate of non-surgical treatment increases to over 70% when massages are combined with fertility yoga, natural supplements and herbal tampons.