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Ovarian cancer

                                                          

Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor in one or both ovaries. Ovarian cancer is when abnormal cells in the ovary begin to multiply out of control and form a tumor. If left untreated, the tumor can spread to other parts of the body.

There are many types of ovarian cancer

  1. Epithelial ovarian cancer
  2. Germ cell ovarian cancer
  3. Stromal ovarian cancer
  4. Primary peritoneal ovarian cancer

Causes

  • Age (risk increases for women over 50)
  • Family history of ovarian, breast  cancer
  • Using estrogen only hormone replacement therapy or fertility treatment.
  • Early onset of periods (before 12 years) and late menopause

Sign and symptoms

  • Unexplained weight loss or gain
    • Loss of appetite
    • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
    • Unusual fatigue
    • Back pain
    • Pain during sex
    • Menstrual changes
    • Frequent or urgent urination
    • Abdominal bloating, pressure, and pain
    • Menstrual irregularities

Diagnosis

  • Transvaginal ultrasound
    • Blood test: This blood test measures the level in your body of CA-125, a protein that is made by ovarian cancer cells
    • Biopsy: The only way to find out for certain if a growth is ovarian cancer is for the doctor to remove cells from it and look at them under a microscope
    • Pelvic Exam

Treatment

 Chemotherapy

Radiation therapy: This technique uses X-rays to kills cancer cells.

Targeted therapy: Some treatments target specific cells that help promote cancer growth. Examples include monoclonal antibody therapy and angiogenesis inhibitors. Targeted therapy aims to limit the adverse effects by targeting specific functions.

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