Role of Reproductive Hormones
The hormones controlling the female reproductive system include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), all of which are produced in the brain, oestrogen and progesterone produced by the ovaries and the corpus luteum, and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is produced in hypothalamus gland which is the part of brain. When it circulates in the blood, it causes the release of two important hormones from the pituitary gland in another specialized part of the brain.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is produced by the pituitary gland during the first half of the menstrual cycle. It stimulates development of the maturing ovarian follicle and controls ovum production in the female, and sperm production in the male.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is also produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. It stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen and progesterone. It triggers ovulation (the release of a mature ovum from the ovary), and it promotes the development of the corpus luteum.
Oestrogen is a female reproductive hormone, produced primarily by the ovaries in the non-pregnant woman. It promotes the maturation and release of an ovum in every menstrual cycle. It is also produced by the placenta during pregnancy.
Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary; its function is to prepare the endometrium (lining of the uterus) for the reception and development of the fertilized ovum. It also suppresses the production of oestrogen after ovulation has occurred.
Beta-human chronic gonadotropin Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, or human chorionic gonadotropin) is a placental hormone initially secreted by cells from the implantation from the during week 2, supporting the ovarian corpus luteum, which in turn supports the endometrial lining and therefore maintains pregnancy.